Officers continued to restrain Mr Floyd - with Chauvin kneeling on his neck, another kneeling on Mr Floyd's back and a third holding his feet - until the ambulance got there, even after he became unresponsive, according to testimony and video footage.
The first five days of the trial also featured emotional testimony from bystanders who witnessed the arrest and urged Chauvin to remove his knee from Floyd's neck.
Arradondo later described Floyd's death last May as "murder". The video, plus officers' body-camera video and previously unseen bystander footage, was a heavy component of the first week of the trial, reawakening traumatic memories for viewers of the livestreamed trial.
One was Darnella Frazier, who was 17 when she captured the cellphone video that went viral and drew the world's attention to the case.
Cher wrote in defence of her comments: "Wrestled With This Twt, Because I Thought some ppl wouldn't understand".
Under cross-examination from Nelson, Langenfeld said Floyd's carbon dioxide levels were more than twice has high as levels in healthy person, and he agreed that that could be attributed to a respiratory problem.
"I know Ppl Apologize When They're In a Jam, BUT [hand] TO GOD ... It's what he should have done". But he was not told of any other efforts by police to resuscitate him after he was arrested on suspicion of trying to pass a counterfeit $20 bill at a convenience store.
Minneapolis police Inspector Katie Blackwell, commander of the training division at the time of Floyd's death, also took the stand on Monday.
A consensus has grown over the years, accelerated by Floyd's case, that it's not practical to provide officers the constant training they need to master and maintain the art of the blood choke.
Video captured McMillian urging Floyd to get into the police vehicle.
"It is unfathomable to me that you felt it appropriate to force my child to watch George Floyd's murder on television in your classroom, and then move on with his day as if nothing had happened", the letter further stated. Moments later, he cried out, "Momma!" "I don't have a mama either".
Judge Cahill also heard arguments from Nelson and prosecutor Steven Schleicher amid discussions over what evidence could be entered regarding Chauvin's training and who would be called to testify on it specifically.
Chauvin appeared "very comfortable with the majority of his weight balanced on top of Mr. Floyd", she said.
But she never had the chance to provide aid.
Responding to the fierce backlash today, the Believe singer said she was "truly sorry" for upsetting followers.
A slightly tetchy Judge Cahill warned the prosecution that their approach was "starting to get cumulative, ' telling them that they were not going to be able to 'call every other police officer" and ask them, 'What would you have done?'
The Minneapolis Police Department banned all forms of neck restraints and chokeholds weeks after Floyd's death, but at the time of his May 25 arrest by Derek Chauvin and other officers, certain neck restraints were permitted - provided certain guidelines and conditions were followed.
In particular, the chief said Chauvin's kneeling on Floyd's neck for nine minutes and 29 seconds is not a trained tactic and was a violation of the policies around de-escalation, objectively reasonable use of force and requirement to render aid.
"Pulling him down to the ground facedown and putting your knee on a neck for that amount of time, it's just uncalled for", Zimmerman said. Arradondo agreed and acknowledged that this must also be taken into consideration when officers decide to use force. "And that's what they would have to feel to use that type of force".
UPDATE: 10:30 a.m. ET: Prosecutors called the emergency room physician who was at the hospital when George Floyd arrived.
Dr. Bradford Wankhede Langenfeld testified that Floyd arrive without a heartbeat "sufficient to sustain life" and that he spent 30 minutes trying to save him.
Nelson made it clear early on that he meant to pursue an argument that Floyd's death was due to a combination of drug intoxication, heart disease, and high blood pressure. Chauvin's lawyer contends that Floyd died from underlying health issues and that Chauvin followed his police training in the way in which Floyd was arrested. Toxicology testing found fentanyl and methamphetamine in his body.
Prosecutors in the second week of the trial are also expected to zero in on Chauvin's training in the use of force.
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